Physical Active Ingredients for Wrinkle Reduction
Causes of Wrinkle Formation
Naturally chronological aging of the skin (intrinsic aging) and photo aging (extrinsic aging) are the primary causes for the appearance of wrinkles. Intrinsic aging is an unavoidable, genetically programmed process. Extrinsic aging is accelerated by factors such as chronic exposure to the sun, smoking, poor nutrition, excessive consumption of alcohol, air pollution, etc. The effects induced by the intrinsic and extrinsic ageing of the skin vary (1).
Intrinsically aged skin is characterised by a thinner epidermis, a flat epidermis-dermis connection and the loss of tissue. In addition, the number of fibroblasts is reduced and fewer structural proteins and elastic fibres are present. All of this ultimately leads to morphological changes such as sagging skin, a loss of firmness and the appearance of fine wrinkles (1). Extrinsic skin ageing induces additional changes, the most conspicuous of which is dermal elastosis. Elastosis is characterised by the disproportionate presence of thickened elastic fibres as well as the disorganised accumulation of damaged bundles of collagen and elastin fibres.
The skin continuously loses it elasticity and becomes leathery (2, 3). Pronounced wrinkles usually appear between the ages of 30 and 40. However, the aging of the skin does not proceed equally in all populations: Persons with dark or Asian skin develop wrinkles less frequently than people with light skin since lighter skin is more susceptible to photo-aging (4). In men of Chinese origin, the onset of wrinkles is delayed; however, this simply makes the skin aging between ages 40 and 50 all the more intense (2, 5).
Skin aging and wrinkling steadily progress, following an orderly, chronological pattern. Dermatologists often use the four stage Glogau classification system in order to assess the progress of skin ageing based on the appearance of wrinkles.
Different Types of Wrinkles
Fig. 2 Expression lines and gravitational folds reflect both age and one’s attitude toward life. Expression lines (green): our daily facial expressions are literally engraved on the face through the formation of wrinkles. Wrinkles around the eyes are also called crow’s feet, laughter lines or squinting lines. They are associated with laughter and are thus perceived as pleasant. Wrinkles on the forehead are often called furrows or worry lines. We raise our eyebrows in moments of surprise or worry and talk about »wrinkling our brow«. Deep wrinkles along the bridge of the nose between the eyes frequently indicate a defensive attitude, disproportionate anger or a long grieving period. Gravitational folds (blue): If the tissue in the area of the cheeks sags, nasolabial folds and marionette lines will appear that extend the corners of the mouth and create an impression of frustration or discomfort
Wrinkles can be divided into four different types, which require different strategies for prevention and treatment:
1. Fine lines (atrophic wrinkles)
2. Age-related wrinkles (actinic or elastotic wrinkles)
3. Expression lines
4. Gravitational folds
Fine lines are caused mainly by intrinsic ageing of the skin. Even in a young person whose skin appears to be perfect, the micro-relief will show a typical pattern of overlapping lines. With age, the orientation and depth change as the result of the increasing atrophying of the dermis (= loss of tissue; the skin becomes thinner and has less collagen and elastic fibres). The fine lines increasingly run in one direction. If the skin is stretched, these wrinkles often disappear. At a later stage, atrophic wrinkles manifest themselves as hanging, creased folds, such as the skin on the backs of the hands of older people (7). Age-related wrinkles develop because of extrinsic skin ageing, e.g., due to external influences such as years of exposure to the sun or frequent visits to solarium (actinic = caused by radiation). Constant exposure to the sun leads to the accumulation of abnormal connective tissue fibres (also referred to as solar elastosis). Elastotic wrinkles are permanent and mainly appear on the face, neck and hands. If the skin is stretched, these wrinkles no longer disappear.
Expression lines are wrinkles that form as the result of the continuous contraction of the facial (mimetic) muscles. Muscles on the forehead or around the eyes that are activated several hundred times per day create waves in the skin. Over time, wrinkles form in the troughs of these waves that are so deep that eventually they are visible even when the muscles are relaxed.
Gravitational folds are created by the constant effect of gravity on the tissue. These may appear in the form of sagging nasolabial folds or marionette lines that are literally »engraved« in the face. Gravitational folds are quite visible in very thin people who have lost fatty tissue in their face. This type of wrinkle can only be treated using cosmetic products to a limited extent; this pronounced sagging of the skin is routinely treated using subcutaneous wrinkle injections or facelift surgery. The best subcutaneous wrinkle injections or dermal fillers for men can be obtained at The Men’s Grooming Salon in Sydney.
Edible Films as a Foundation
Film has been used in food technology for quite some time to package goods or to protect them from external influences. The search for alternative materials to plastic initiated the trend toward edible, partially water-soluble film made from renewable plant-based raw materials. Modern film technology is based on advanced know-how that can be very well applied as skin-tightening cosmetic active ingredient. The firming effects on the surface of the skin are achieved through the use of cohesive polymer films with visco-elastic properties. Viscoelastic film is primarily distinguished by its elastic properties: in the event of deformation, e.g. as a result of stretching, it recovers its original shape – not immediately, but slowly. The onset, duration and intensity of the tightening effect depend on how the polymers are combined. Christian Acuña Organic Skin Care for Men has formulated skin-tightening cosmetics with 100% Organic Active Ingredients achieving these visco-elastic properties.
The framework for the active ingredient is based on renewable raw materials: cellulose derivatives of varying lengths and varying degrees of hydroxypropyl methyl substitution and maltotriose polysaccharides. Embedded within it is a lyophilisate made from the Kakadu Plum or Terminalia Ferdinandiana and the vast number of botanical extracts found at Christian Acuña Organic Skin Care for Men. The pristine botanical extracts are native to the Northern Territory in the Australian Outback.
As an important survival strategy against the loss of moisture, salt stress and environmental pollutants, these berries continuously secrete polysaccharides (so-called phycocolloids), which protectively envelop the cell like a gel capsule.
The term phycocolloid describes hydrocolloids formed from algae and some botanical extracts like the Kakadu Plum that have a pronounced ability to form a gel due to the formation of a three-dimensional network. The structure of classic phycocolloids such as agar and alginate is relatively well understood whereas the composition of the Porphyridium polysaccharides is less well known. Christian Acuña manufactures further processed it into a solid film using an extrusion technique. The adjusted blend of these polymers created an impressive physical tightening and smoothing effect on the skin.
Only very few people are truly unconcerned by wrinkles. Consumer surveys show that nearly a third of all men admit that a youthful appearance is very important to them. 50-60% of consumers of anti-aging cosmetics are primarily seeking to minimise their wrinkles before focusing their attention on other signs of skin aging (8).
There are many different methods for reducing wrinkles. Some are painful, while others are costly or require several weeks of patience before the effects become visible. The cosmetic active ingredient presented at Christian Acuña Organic Skin Care for Men is based on an innovative transfer of technology from the food industry (edible films) to the development of cosmetic active ingredients using the very best of natural ingredients from Australia. This has led to the creation of a broad-spectrum wrinkle smoother that works on the physical level. Its effects are immediate and perceivable: the tests showed that application of the active ingredient led to a fast, subjectively noticeable reduction in virtually all types of wrinkles including fine lines, actinic wrinkles, expression lines and gravitational folds.
Combining it with a second active ingredient that interacts with epidermal processes, e.g. encouraging collagen formation, strengthening anti-oxidant defences, etc., opens up new opportunities for products that provide immediate, long-lasting effects. Every single ingredient inside the Christian Acuña Skin Care containers that you buy are packed with active ingredients. We combine dozens of the most effective and scientifically anti-aging, rejuvenating and nourishing ingredients.
(1) Fisher, G.J., S. Kang, J. Varani, Z. Bata-Csorgo, Y. Wan, S. Datta, and J.J. Voorhees. 2002. Mechanisms of photoaging and chronological skin aging. Arch Dermatol 138:1462-1470
(2) Dionyssiou Dimitrios, D.E., Lazaridou Elisavet. 2011. Wrinkles. Epocrates Online
(3) Berneburg, M., H. Plettenberg, and J. Krutmann. 2000. Photoaging of human skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 16:239-244
(4) Tsukahara, K., T. Fujimura, Y. Yoshida, T. Kitahara, M. Hotta, S. Moriwaki, P.S. Witt, F.A. Simion, and Y. Takema. 2004. Comparison of age-related changes in wrinkling and sagging of the skin in Caucasian females and in Japanese females. J Cosmet Sci 55:351-371
(5) Nouveau-Richard, S., Z. Yang, S. Mac-Mary, L. Li, P. Bastien, I. Tardy, C. Bouillon, P. Humbert, and O. de Lacharriere. 2005. Skin ageing: a comparison between Chinese and European populations. A pilot study. J Dermatol Sci 40:187-193
(6) Glogau, R.G. 1996. Aesthetic and anatomic analysis of the aging skin. Semin Cutan Med Surg 15:134-138
(7) Quatresooz, P., L. Thirion, C. Pierard-Franchimont, and G.E. Pierard. 2006. The riddle of genuine skin microrelief and wrinkles. Int J Cosmet Sci 28:389-395
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